Blood Pressure, a Health Indicator

Blood pressure is the measure of the force of blood pushing against blood vessel walls. A normal value is 120/80 mmHg or lower.

A beating heart creates the pressure when it pumps fresh blood to the organs and tissues of your body, providing oxygen and nutrients. This pressure is known as blood pressure.

Higher number indicates systolic pressure, lower number indicates diastolic pressure. Read more below.

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Navigation: (BP stands for blood pressure):
The basics:
Systolic values
Diastolic values
Causes and prevention::
High blood pressure causes
Low blood pressure causes
Consequences of high blood pressure
High blood pressure symptoms
Low blood pressure symptoms
Measuring your levels
Blood pressure chart
Blood pressure chart by age
Blood pressure chart in children
Normal values
High and low blood pressure
How to lower your levels
How to raise your levels
Foods that lower blood pressure

Physical inactivity, poor diet and stress gradually affects your health which may result in elevated / decreased blood pressure.

With a healthy lifestyle you can do a lot for your health, starting today!

Your numbers are not only correlated with your lifestyle, but also by factors which you have no control over – for example your genetics. High blood pressure or arterial hypertension is a very common chronic disease in developed world, affecting nearly every second adult.

While very often having elevated blood pressure will show no symptoms, it still causes damage to your arteries (atherosclerosis) and weakens your heart. That is why it is sometimes referred to as the “silent killer”. To prevent this you must necessarily undergo a treatment.

What is blood pressure

Blood pressure is the pressure with which blood acts against the walls of your blood vessels. A beating heart creates pressure when it pumps fresh blood to the organs and tissues of your body, providing oxygen and nutrients.

A healthy adults heart beats (shrinks and expands) between 60 to 70 times in a minute. If your heart rate (heart pulse) is higher or lower anytime, that does not necessarily mean you have a medical condition.

Since having elevated levels does not “hurt” and usually does not cause any visible changes, it can only be determined by measurement.

Beats per minute value can vary depending on many factors (age, overall physical condition, genetics). A heart beat of 80 BPM or more (BPM stands for Beats Per Minute) can be treated as perfectly normal in some cases!

measuring blood pressure
Image source:

When we refer to blood pressure we always refer to two numbers in following format: 120/80, 100/60 or similar. The first number stands for systolic value and the second number stands for diastolic value.

Systolic blood pressure
When the heart shrinks and pushes the blood into main arteries (aortas), blood pressure rises for a moment – this is known as systolic blood pressure (sys).

Diastolic blood pressure
After each shrinkage the heart expands again and is filled with new blood – at that moment blood pressure in the arteries drops for a moment – this is known as diastolic blood pressure (dia).

High and low blood pressure

Blood pressure can either be normal, low or high. If it is elevated, you must seek medical advice. If it is low, seek medical advice only if you develop certain symptoms as described further in this article.
High blood pressure is anything above 140/90 mmGh.
Low blood pressure is anything below 110/70 mmGh.

Normal blood pressure

Normal blood pressure for a healthy individual is between 120/80 mmGh and 139/89 mmGh. Although 139/89 mmGh might seem as elevated value it should still be considered as normal.

Average blood pressure is between 120/80 and 125/85 mmGh. Ideal blood pressure is below 120/80 mmHg.

For more information refer to blood pressure chart.

Normal value is 120/80 mmGh, preferably less.
High value is anything above 140/90 mmGh.
Low value is anything below 110/70 mmGh.

What causes high blood pressure

The reason for permanent increase in BP in majority of cases (more than 95%) is not known – this is primary or essential arterial hypertension. Factors that may increase the possibility of you developing arterial hypertension are usually the following:

  • poor diet with excessive use of salt,
  • obesity,
  • excessive alcohol consumption (more than 10 ounces (3 dcl) of wine or 3 ounces (1 dcl) spirits or 2 small beers every day),
  • physical inactivity.

By changing your lifestyle you can easily and naturally mitigate the risk.

There are also factors that you have no influence on, but may cause your levels to rise / drop. These factors include:

  • inherited characteristics (genetics),
  • gender (male),
  • aging (after the age of 45, it gradually rises).

What are the consequences of high blood pressure?

Prolonged high levels can lead to vascular damage and in worst case cause a heart failure, stroke, kidney failure and other complications.

The risk increases linearly with the increase of blood pressure. The more it is increased, the greater the risk. People with high levels are at seven times higher risk for stroke.

Numerous studies have shown that successful treatment of high blood pressure decreases the risk of cardiovascular disease and lowers mortality, thus, it is very important that you undergo a treatment when you are diagnosed with high or very high levels.

People with high BP levels are at seven times higher risk for stroke.

How to temporary / permanently raise blood pressure

Sometimes your levels might be too low which may induce symptoms such as tiredness in the morning, lack of energy throughout the day, dizziness and sleepiness, headache, drowsiness, nausea, lack of appetite, cold hands and feet or even fainting (which can be dangerous, especially to pregnant women and the elderly).

To quickly elevate your levels you can:

  • Drink a glass or two of water or sports drink. This will replenish lost minerals.
  • Eat a salty snack. Salt increases BP levels.
  • If possible preform some quick exercises (for example squats) or just walk around a bit. Physical exercise will increase blood flow, thus increasing blood pressure.
  • Take a shower. First, shower with hot water then switch to cold water. Doing so will increase your blood flow.
  • Drink a cup of coffee, if you’re allowed to.

To permanently elevate your levels consider the following:

  • Add more salt to your diet.
  • Exercise regularly.
  • Quit smoking.

If that doesn’t help you should talk to your doctor who might put you on drugs.

How to lower blood pressure

How to quickly lower blood pressure?
Breathe deeply and slowly as breathing is an effective technique to lower your blood pressure.
Go for a Brisk Walk.
Drink some tea.
Listen to Music.

What you can do in long term?
A single lifestyle change can have a great effect! Quit smoking, maintain a healthy body weight (loss of a few pounds – 5% to 10% of body weight – can significantly reduce your levels!).

A healthy diet that contains as little salt and animal fat as possible will lower your blood pressure as well. Regular physical activity is also know to lower blood pressure.

If blood pressure does not drop to normal levels after actions taken, drugs are usually prescribed. Carefully follow your doctor’s recommendation and take your medicine regularly.

Treatment of high blood pressure with drugs is usually life-long, so the awareness of the patient about the medical condition and cooperation with the chosen doctor is of utmost importance. This way treatment can be more successful.

Foods that lower blood pressure

Check out which food is advised to eat if you suffer from elevated levels. Foods that lower blood pressure are the following:

If you suffer from hypertension, have raisins stirred into your morning cereals. Combine raisins with nuts. For best results, eat a handful of raisins three times a day.

Eating foods that are rich in potassium can affect your blood pressure level. An ideal example of food that contains a lot of potassium and is not too expensive is a banana.

Consuming watermelons will improve the health of your heart. This healthy fruit contains a special amino acid which lowers blood pressure.

Not only tofu, but eating all soy products can help people who struggle with elevated blood pressure as soy contains an ingredient called isoflavone which may help to lower blood pressure. Green tea also contains isoflavone.

Not expected to be on this list, but chocolate contains flavonoids, which may help to lower blood pressure. Do not buy a classic chocolate, but rather purchase a chocolate containing a high percentage of cocoa (at least 70%). Such chocolate is also filled with antioxidants. Do not overdo it though, as chocolate is very calorie-rich.

Many dishes can spiced with hot chili. Chili is rich in capsaicin, a substance proven to lower blood pressure.

What causes low blood pressure

When we talk about blood pressure we usually think of high blood pressure and the dangers it poses to our health. Much more rarely we hear about low blood pressure (also known as hypotension). In fact this condition is not so rare.

For some, low values do not cause any problems. But many times people who have low blood pressure find it really hard to start a new day full of energy.

What causes low blood pressure is often unknown. So far, known factors are the following:

  • certain diseases, infections and heart problems,
  • increased blood loss, salt and fluid loss (eg due to heavy sweating, vomiting or diarrhea ),
  • due to low blood pressure medication to lower high levels.

Caution is required when using diuretics, which promote the excretion of water from the body. Sometimes, low blood pressure occurs during pregnancy which can be dangerous to the fetus (because of the reduced blood flow to the placenta), which can lead to a delay in the growth of the child.

How to cure low blood pressure

When problems are severe it is necessary to visit your personal doctor. There are some medications that help normalize blood pressure and cope with problems. A visit to the doctor is necessary when problems arise suddenly, since only a doctor can make a diagnosis and prescribe an appropriate treatment.

What can you do by yourself to lower blood pressure?
First of all, get enough sleep! When waking up in the morning make sure you take enough time in bed to stretch. Stretch and relax your arms and legs to help “wake up” your bloodstream.

Be careful when getting up from sitting position suddenly as you might faint or feel dizzy. When taking shower try alternating hot / cold water or a massage yourself with a soft brush – both improves blood circulation.

It is also important to be physical active, which in fact is recommended to anyone who wants to take care of their health. Morning coffee and other caffeine-containing drinks in can be a short-term help for low blood pressure.

When it comes to diet your food should contain enough water (at least 4 pints (1 litre) a day), meals should not be calorie rich because full stomach requires a lot of blood for digestion and will slow down your blood circulation even more.

Almost every garden grows beetroot, which may help relieve problems caused by low blood pressure. You can either eat raw beetroot or drink beetroot juice (if you hate the taste you can try beetroot juice in combination with honey)

Sport drinks containing a sufficient amount of vitamins and minerals can be useful when blood pressure is low.

High / low blood pressure symptoms

High blood pressure symptoms are:

Usually symptoms are totally absent. If symptoms are present they manifest as:

  • headache,
  • dizziness,
  • blurred vision,
  • nosebleeds,
  • chest pain.

Headache generally occurs only when the blood pressure is really high. Headache typically occurs in the morning (it usually hurts in back of the head).

Low blood pressure symptoms are:

Most common low blood pressure symptoms are the following:

  • tiredness in the morning, lack energy throughout the day, dizziness and sleepiness,
  • headache, drowsiness, nausea, lack of appetite, cold hands and feet,
  • fainting (which can be dangerous, especially to pregnant women and the elderly).

Measuring blood pressure level

Since elevated blood pressure does not “hurt” and usually does not cause visible damage it can only be determined by measurement. If measured value is below 130/85 mmHg it is advised to re-check blood pressure within two years. If measured blood pressure is between 130/85 and 139/89 it is advised to re-check blood pressure within a year. If measured value is higher than 140/90 you must follow your doctor’s instructions.

One measurement usually is not enough as errors might occur when performing measurement. If measured blood pressure is high that does not mean that you have hypertension, unless it is a very high value. The diagnosis of high blood pressure is usually based on several measurements in a given time interval (for example multiple measurements within a week, every day at the same time).

Since elevated blood pressure does not “hurt” and usually does not cause any visible changes it can be determined only by measurement. Measure it often!

How to measure blood pressure

Basically, two types of blood pressure meters (or a sphygmomanometers) are available and these are digital and non-digital ones. Both will provide same values. Always read the instructions before performing test. If blood pressure meter is not working, first check the battery.

If you know how to measure BP, jump to blood pressure chart.

  • Before measurement it is necessary to calm down – sit down for 5 minutes.
  • The measurement should always be performed before eating (not on a full stomach) and every day at about the same time. Before measurement it is also not advised to drink coffee, alcohol or smoke cigarettes.
  • Cuff must be placed correctly – if measuring on the arm cuff should be placed above the elbow (elbow and cuff should be 2 fingers apart). If wrist cuff is used it should be placed one finger above the wrist,. Cuff must always be paced on the left arm as heart is on the left side of your chest. There are some rare occasions where people are born with heart on the right side of chest. In that case, cuff must be places on the right arm.
  • If you are very obese a wrist measurement is more handy.
  • It is very important to known that when performing measurement of blood pressure you need to set the meter to at least 40 mmHg higher pressure than your normal upper blood pressure is. If your normal systolic blood pressure is about 150 mmHg set your meter to least 190 mmHg. In semi-automatic blood pressure meter you can do this manually by pumping the air into cuff, on automatic meter this value is set by a button.
  • Take a few minutes between two consecutive measurements as blood vessels needs to expand properly again otherwise the second measurement will always be lower than the first.
  • Be aware that blood pressure normally fluctuates and two consecutive measurements will not show same result. That’s normal.
  • Patients with arrhythmia will usually get false results using electronic pressure gauge. The possibility of arrhythmia must be considered whenever the measurement shows “impossible” values, for example 150/135 mmHg. In that case it’s better to buy a classic mercury pressure gauges to obtain proper blood pressure value.
  • Enter your daily measurements of blood pressure into a special chart (chart usually comes with a purchase of the device). This information is very useful for your doctor and yourself.
  • For most reliable measurements it is recommended that you take your blood pressure meter to an authorized service center where they will re-calibrate it for you. Do this at least once per year.

Blood pressure chart

Below you can find blood pressure chart. Click on the image to enlarge it.

Additional blood pressure charts:
Blood pressure chart A chart that displays levels of blood pressure levels.
Blood pressure chart by age See how values may change over the years.
Blood pressure chart for children See what are the average values in children should be.

Additional blood pressure charts (49 charts).

blood pressure chart
Blood pressure chart displays all possible levels of blood pressure and comes in very handy when determining whether you are at risk or not!

Additional resources:
Download blood pressure log (pdf file) to keep track of your records: Blood pressure log.
Download blood pressure chart in PDF.

Blood pressure chart – possible values
systolic blood pressure (mmHg) diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)
optimal blood pressure 119, 118, 117, 116, 115, 114, 113, 112, 111, 110, 109, 108, 107, 106, 105, 104, 103, 102, 101, 100, 99, 98, 97, 96, 95 79, 78, 77, 76, 75, 74, 73, 72, 71, 70, 69, 68, 67, 66, 65
normal blood pressure* 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129 80, 81, 82, 83, 84
borderline normal blood pressure* 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139 85, 86, 87, 88, 89
hypertension (stage 1) 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99
hypertension (stage 2) 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109
hypertension (stage 3) more than 179 more than 109
possible arterial hypertension** equal or more than 130 equal or more than 80
isolated systolic hypertension*** more than 139 less than 90
possible hypotension less than 90 less than 60

Blood pressure chart is for orientation purposes only. Use this chart at your own risk!
* In some cases, a value of 120/80 or higher may represent an early stage of hypertension.
** For diabetics value of 130/80 can represent arterial hypertension.
*** Isolated systolic hypertension occurs when only systolic pressure is increased, diastolic pressure remains normal.

What is hypertension?
Hypertension (also referred to as high blood pressure – HBP), is a condition in which the arteries have persistently elevated blood pressure.

What is hypotension?
Hypotension (also referred to as low blood pressure – LBP) means that your levels are lower than the normal reading. Hypotension is usually harmless. In some cases, people with hypotension need medical attention.

How blood pressure changes over the years
Below you can find blood pressure chart which displays values of blood pressure depending on age. Following values are average values for a specific age group.

Average blood pressure by age chart
Age Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)
3, 4, 5, 6 116 75
7, 8, 9, 10 121 77
11, 12, 13 125 82
14, 15, 16 136 87
17, 18, 19 120 85
20, 21, 22, 23, 24 120 79
25, 26, 27, 28, 29 120 80
30, 31, 32, 33, 34 122 81
35, 36, 37, 38, 39 123 81
40, 41, 42, 43, 44 125 83
45, 46, 47, 48, 49 125 84
50, 51, 53, 54 128 85
55, 56, 57, 58, 59 131 86
60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68 134 87

Values are averages.

What are expected values of blood pressure in children?
Children normally have lower blood pressure which rises over the years, while heart beat rate usually drops over the years.

Blood pressure chart for children
Age Boys (systolic/diastolic in mmHg) Girls (systolic/diastolic in mmHg)
1 to 3 between 80/34 and 120/75 83/38 – 117/76
4 to 6 between 88/47 and 128/84 88/50 – 122/83
7 to 10 between 92/53 and 130/90 93/55 – 129/88

Values are averages.


Blood pressure is a good indicator of your overall health, although slightly elevated levels do not necessarily indicate a medical condition or risk.

It is a good idea to regularly check your blood pressure and consult your doctor in case you find your levels to be elevated.


    • Anything higher than 120/80 is considered too high for adults, and 90/60 is considered too low for adults, so your bp is perfect!

  1. I have always had high BP start new medicine and now BP start about 148/88 and by evenings will be 100/44 I get lightheaded and pluse rate will jump to 132 for about 45min:My sleeping pluse rate is 58 what is going on:I talked with my heart doctor heart rate changes with big BP drop.

  2. Do I worry ????? I am 35 I always had perfect blood pressure even during all three of my pergancy even with my twins . always nervous cause my mother suffer with severe hypertension. But late lately my blood pressure has been 149/50 and my pulse 125 am I suppose to be alarm my mom says yes don\’t know

  3. I️ am a 43 ye old woman. I️ suffer from anxiety and this week experienced my 1st severe panic attack.I️ am under a great deal of stress which I️ cannot seem t cope with. I was embarrassed to go to ER, however my body was shaking uncontrollably as if I️ was having a seizure.
    I️ went to ER blood pressure was 166/106. They gave me IV of Adavan , stayed approx 5 hrs. Upon leaving I️t had calmed down. 2 days later my bp is flucuating , 167/107 and 2 hrs later 153/116. I️ don’t want to be dramatic and go back to ER. I️ everything is an effort, I️ feel completely depleted.
    Please someone give me advice 🙏

    • Never be embarrassed to see your doctor or go to the ER. The body is a complex entity. Blood pressure is a message when something is not right. Please see your doctor asap and I wish you good health and happiness.

    • let me know when you get any information….I\’m a 74 year old male, with blood pressure of around 135 over 75, and a heart rate of around 60. I work out three times weekly, consume 4-5 drinks daily, and feel good, so no worries.

      Good luck you!

  4. Hi I\’m 26 year old male I I have noticed over the past month that my blood pressure keeps going to stage 2 hypertension 171/84 was my reading on the 20/12/16 I\’ve kept an eye on this as I have heart problems running through my family since November 2016 I have changed my diet stopped smoking I work out at the gym everyday but yet my blood pressure is still staying in hypertension stage 1/2 I took my reading again tonight it was 173/72 so the sys is at hypertension but my dia is not I have spoken to a doctor and I have been referred to have a 24 hour monitor placed on me well the reason why I\’m asking this question is that I am a little worried about it and not a lot has been explained to me so I have to read things off the Internet and it keeps heading to conoray heart disease so if some one could help me understand I would be thankful

  5. Hi I\’m diabetic type 2, my blood pressure tonight is 139 over 80 and my blood reading is 4.6, is this ok for a 63 year old.


  6. I am 66 years old my blood pressure is 117 / 74 but pulse is 146
    is it dangerous? What I can do some times i can not sleep\’
    I have my own blood pressure.

  7. im a male 68 years of age
    my blood pressure -is a joke , was high for 25 years – was on medication for 5 years – months ago started falling down – then was normal – now is up and down every day- its about 4 am now showing 143 / 73 and pulse is 55
    yesterday pulse dropped to 44 – the blood pressure is high, pulse is low – funny.
    if i take a blood pressure medicine – 125 potency the pulse will fall down again – correct
    how low a pulse can go till its fatal

  8. I have always had lower Bp, 98/58 avg. I suffer from chronic migraines, my Dr put me on a beta blocker to try to help prevent my migraines. I have tried every medication for migraines. I stopped taking the beta blocker after 2 weeks due to getting severe dizzy spells, I stand up, sit up even just turning around, bending over even just walking the dizzy spells would hit out of no were have gotten while driving. Have been off beta blocker almost 3 weeks now n my Bp reading have been even lower. Avg readings have been 88/52, pulse 144 avg. Could this still be from the beta blocker or something else. I have a high family history of high Bp but no one in my family has low Bp

  9. At age 74, and a woman, I have resistant high blood pressure. This morning it is 179, diastolic 63 and pulse 44. I am on 3 high blood pressure medications already. I fear the doctors will put me on a 4th. high blood pressure medication with additional side affects which I am already experiencing. What can I do?
    Typically my blood pressure is over 200.

  10. My age is 38 , my systolic is 126 and diastolic is 72 and pulse per min. is 65 , is that good or should i need to worry about something

  11. Hello, can you send me the following numbers (I cannot get the anywhere)?
    values for 70 year old man?
    values for 65 year old man?
    values for 60 year old man?
    values for 54 year old man?
    values for 50 year old man?
    values for 40 year old man?
    Thank you in advance. Antony.

  12. HBP was passed down to me through my genes and I’m not proud to mention my BP readings were off the scale even though I’m on 4 different BP medicines. My doctor added one more so I decided it was time again to get off my duff and start doing something before my first heart attack or stroke strikes. I’m 59 and soon to be 60 in May but have very good news to report. Many people walk or run but I live in the city and will not run on concrete so my answer is “power walking”. That is walking as fast as you can for miles, three to be exact. I’ve been doing with for 4 months now with amazing results. I just got back from my 3 miles, went to get the mail and checked my BP – 126 over 73 and 64 beats per minute…..not bad 5 minutes after the walk! Try it and you’ll be amazed how this can change and increase your life!

  13. My husband is nearly age 46 his systolic is 102 and
    his Diastolic is 58 . pulse – 92.
    He was done bye pass surgery before 4 months.
    Is this a good sign or bad ?

    • my blood pressure on saturday July 140/100 then in the after 4pm it went down to 130/90 now today July 18 its at 100/104 what should i do

  14. My age is 55 & a lady my blood pressure is
    Systolic 169 Mmhg & diastolic is 70 mmhg is that good or bad please let me know

  15. I’m nearly 46 my systolic is 106 & should be 125 & my Diastolic is 72 . When for my age my Diastolic should be round the 84 mark .
    Is this a good sign or bad ?

  16. Hi I am ,22 years old male, My hads ad feet sweat quite a ot specially hads they ust drip, I was feeling dizzy, and funny so checked pressure on electronic pressure monitor result 128/56 and pulse was 104, I have ot done any physical activity prior to taking the test and it showed a irregular heart beat on monitor, for the first time. I felt my heart was alilating too Since of late I have been dringkig lots of water and going to the toilet a lot for o 1’s, I have but on weight around stomach but I don’t eat much at all,. I did the test few times ad then itshowed different measurmentsbut the symbol of heartbeat would disappear could it be the batteries no light to say batteries are weak and all the other results were still there and the diziness contiues what is it

  17. What does it mean when my systolic is average for my age (122), but the diastolic is slightly low (67)?

    I’m 47, male, and my resting heart rate is 64. I don’t run often (1-2 times per week, 3-6km) but ride often and hard (35-60km three times per week) and do some light weight lifting.

    I’ve never smoked, drink very little, never had surgery nor any medical problems beyond broken bones, and had none of the complaints reported by other people above.

  18. My BP this morning was 101/84 with a resting pulse rate of 141. I see a Cardiologist bc my norm is usually on point at 120/80. Since last summer I’ve had terrible palpitations and dizziness. Over the last 6 months I’ve been experiencing a type of vertigo and a feeling of syncope overcomes me but usually while I’m driving. I’ve also experienced double vision and have passed out and came to with a type of convulsion. My jaw locked during one my brother said and had uncontrolled upper body and eye movement but I remember it happening. I’m not able to get any answers and my doc is actually sending me to another specialist at CCF. The heart racing goes away within about a minute or so after it happens but it usually starts up after I feel light headed and dizzy. Then I feel faint and my heart rate increases. I was put on 5mg of Midodrine 3x daily but it doesnt seem to increase my pressure by much. Any thoughts on this?

    Looking for answers.

  19. These numbers are nothing to worry about. Measure your blood pressure every day at the same time for 5 days and write down an average result. You can use our blood pressure log to record your measurements. If your BP is not increasing than everything is fine. It’s perfectly normal for some people to have slightly increased BP (due to genetics).

  20. This is a great article on blood pressure, very good facts! The foods listed to lower blood pressure was new to me though.
    Thank you for taking the time to put all this together!

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