Overview & Description

An enema is a way of cleaning out the large intestine, which iscalled the colon or bowel. Various solutions are inserted into the rectumto soften the stool. This causes the colon and rectum to stretch andexpand and helps the bowel to empty.

Who is a candidate for the procedure?

Enemas may be given:

  • to relieve constipation.Enemas may be given at home by the person, a family member,or a visiting nurse.
  • to prepare for an exam of the rectum or colon, such as asigmoidoscopyor colonoscopy
  • prior to surgery on the bowel
  • prior to certain X-ray procedures, such as abarium enema.A barium enema is a series of X-ray films that shows the colon after a contrastagent is inserted in the rectum.
  • Enemas used to be given to anyone having surgery and towomen who were in labor. This is practice is no longer common.

    How is the procedure performed?

    The person will be asked to lie on his or her left side.The right leg should be bent up toward the chest. This position helpsthe enema solution flow easily into the colon. The solution most commonlyused is a mixture of mild soap and warm water, and is known as a soapsudsenema. This solution is placed into a small plastic container with aflexible tube. Lubricating jelly is applied to the tip of the tube. The tube is then gentlyinserted into the rectum about 4 to 6 inches. Next, the solution is slowlyreleased through the tube into the bowel.

    A fleets enema is a small, prefilled enema with aprelubricated tip. An oil retention enema is useful for hard stool, because thestool absorbs the oil and is softened.

    Preparation & Expectations

    What happens right after the procedure?

    After an enema, the person is asked to hold the solutionin the rectum for at least 3 minutes. After this time, he or she canexpel the enema while sitting on a toilet or bedpan. The results should beevaluated to be sure that the enema was successful.

    Home Care and Complications

    What happens later at home?

    If the enema was given for constipation,the person should check his or her bowel movements for further constipation.

    If the enema was given to prepare for surgery or for an exam,it may need to be repeated. The goal of this type of enema is to cleansethe bowel. It needs to be repeated until there is no fecal matter expelledafter the enema.

    After a barium enema, the person will have white stool for ashort time as the body expels the barium.

    What are the potential complications after the procedure?

    Sometimes a person may feel faint while having an enema.A more serious risk is a perforated colon, but this is very rare. A perforatedcolon occurs when the tip of the enema pokes through the colon andcauses damage to the tissue.

    Article type: xmedgeneral