Cardiovascular Disease – Definiton, Symptoms, Remedies and Risk Factors

Cardiovascular disease includes a variety of heart and blood vessels conditions. They can be related to atherosclerosis, for example, heart attack, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke.

Other conditions that are considered cardiovascular disease are heart failure, arrhythmia, and heart valve problems.

Heart problems; image source:

Another definition of cardiovascular disease says it is a disorder of the heart or blood vessels that includes several conditions:

  • Coronary heart disease
  • Cerebrovascular disease
  • Peripheral arterial disease
  • Rheumatic heart disease
  • Congenital heart disease
  • Deep vein thrombosis
  • Pulmonary embolism

What are the Symptoms of Cardiovascular Disease?

Some of the most common symptoms of cardiovascular disease are:

  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest pain and feeling of pressure
  • Numbness and pain in extremities
  • Swelling of legs and feet
  • Fatigue
  • Neck pain
  • Abdominal pain and discomfort
  • Pain in the jaw or back
  • Fast or slow heartbeat

Noticing these symptoms on time is crucial because most patients find out that they have a serious health problem only after they’ve had a heart attack or a stroke. If you experience the above symptoms (especially if several of them occur simultaniously), seek emergency medical help.

What are Remedies for Cardiovascular Disease?

The treatment of cardiovascular disease has three aspects:

  1. Lifestyle changes
  2. Medications
  3. Surgical procedures

Lifestyle changes include smoking cessation, a diet rich in good fats and fibers; keeping blood glucose levels, cholesterol, and blood pressure under control. Regular physical activity and stress reduction are also essential when it comes to treatment of cardiovascular disease. Your body mass index should not go above 25. If you are diagnosed with heart disease, make sure to consult your doctor before engaging in any workout regime. Some of the recommended activities efficient in managing stress are meditation, yoga, thai chi, and controlled breathing.

When it comes to medications, some of the most commonly prescribed ones are aspirin, beta blockers, and nitroglycerin.

Surgical interventions performed on patients with blood vessel blockage are angioplasty and stent implant that keeps a blood vessel open.

Risk Factors That Can Lead to Cardiovascular Disease

Some of the risk factors that can cause cardiovascular disease include:

  • Lack of physical activity
  • Smoking
  • Bad diet
  • High cholesterol
  • Hypertension
  • Obesity
  • Family history of heart disease
  • Diabetes
  • Age
  • Gender
  • Ethnicity
  • Socioeconomic status
  • Poor hygiene
  • Alcohol consumption


According to Center for Disease Control and Prevention, more than 600,000 people die from heart disease every year in the United States.

Approximately 47% deaths occur outside the hospital because patients and those close to them don’t recognize symptoms of the disease!

Can Cardiovascular Disease be Prevented?

Some of the measures we all can take to prevent cardiovascular disease are:

  • Quit smoking! – Smoking raises your blood pressure and causes arrhythmia which can result in stroke or heart attack.
  • Exercise about 30 minutes every day. – Regular physical activity benefits your heart and circulation.
  • Eat healthy food. – You should limit your sugar and sodium intake. Salty and greasy diet can increase your cholesterol and blood pressure.
  • Sleep eight hours every night. – Not having a good night rest can cause various diseases in the long run, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and obesity.
  • Go to see your doctor for regular check-ups. – Your physician will monitor your cholesterol levels, blood pressure, and blood glucose. If needed, the doctor will prescribe certain medication(s) to keep the risk factors under control.
  • Avoid stressful situations. – Stress is a very insidious risk factor when it comes to cardiovascular disease, and is very difficult to avoid at the same time. It can raise your blood pressure or lead to alcoholism or substance abuse as a form of defensive mechanism.


Cardiovascular disease includes heart and blood vessels conditions such as arrhythmia, stroke, heart attack, heart failure, congenital heart disease, heart valve problems, and many others.

Some of the most common symptoms of heart disease include chest pain and pressure, numbness of extremities, and shortness of breath. If you notice some of the listed signs, immediately seek emergency medical help.

Despite the fact that heart problems are one of the most common death causes, there are some measures we can all take to prevent them. The number one advice any doctor will give you is to take care of yourself – exercise regularly, eat healthy food, quit smoking, and try to live a stress-free life.


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