Esophageal Obstruction

Overview, Causes, & Risk Factors

Esophageal obstruction is a blockage or narrowing of the esophagus, the muscular tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach. This condition usually causes problems with swallowing.

What is going on in the body?

Esophageal obstruction occurs when an abnormality, injury, or disease narrows the esophagus. Once the tube narrows, swallowing becomes difficult. If the esophagus gets completely blocked, swallowing cannot occur. At that point, vomiting occurs and sometimes stomach content leaks into the lungs. This can cause a serious problem called aspiration pneumonia.

What are the causes and risks of the condition?

Esophageal obstruction can occur for a variety of reasons, including:

  • abnormal structures. A person may be born with an abnormal esophagus, such as esophageal atresia. It may have extra tissue, called esophageal webs, crossing through it. There may also be a ring of thick muscle around the esophagus, called Schatzki’s ring.
  • injury. Children who swallow lye products, such as drain cleaners, can develop esophageal stricture, or narrowing. A person may also be injured during an endoscopy, the examination of the esophagus and stomach with a lighted tube.
  • prolonged use of a nasogastric, or stomach, tube which can causeesophageal stricture
  • infection by certain viruses and bacteria, which can cause narrowing of the esophagus
  • other diseases, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease. In this condition, stomach acids come up into the esophagus and cause damage.
  • esophageal cancer, which can cause narrowing or blockage
  • Symptoms & Signs

    What are the signs and symptoms of the condition?

    The symptoms of a narrowed esophagus include:

  • difficulty swallowing
  • pain with swallowing
  • regurgitation of food
  • weight loss
  • Diagnosis & Tests

    How is the condition diagnosed?

    A history of swallowing problems gives a clue to the diagnosis. Narrowing or blockage is diagnosed by x-rays taken after the person has swallowed a thick dye. This is called an upper GI series, or barium swallow. The reason for the narrowing can be found by endoscopy.

    Prevention & Expectations

    What can be done to prevent the condition?

    Chemical injury can be prevented by storing dangerous chemicals in a safe place. Other injury can be prevented by careful medical procedures. Nasogastric tubes should be used only as long as necessary. Acid damage to the esophagus can be prevented by treating gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    What are the long-term effects of the condition?

    Depending on the cause, narrowing can progress to total blockage. Narrowing that is not relieved can lead to poor malnutrition and weight loss. Total blockage can cause regurgitation of food and liquid into the lung. There, these materials can cause inflammation and breathing problems, known as aspiration pneumonia. Esophageal cancer can spread and lead to death.

    What are the risks to others?

    There is no risk to others.

    Treatment & Monitoring

    What are the treatments for the condition?

    Narrowing caused by abnormal structures or injury may be relieved by dilation. In this procedure, instruments of increasing size are inserted through the narrowed area. This gradually opens the esophagus. The procedure may have to be repeated to relieve the symptoms. Dilation may also have to be repeated if the narrowing returns. Sometimes a stent, or firm tube, is placed across the narrow area to keep it open.

    When dilation does not fix the problem, surgery may be necessary. Sometimes just the narrowed portion can be removed. Other times, the esophagus is replaced with a piece of the stomach or large intestines.

    A person with esophageal cancer sometimes get better with radiation therapy or chemotherapy.

    What are the side effects of the treatments?

    Dilation of the esophagus may not work or may have to be repeated. Any surgery can cause bleeding, pain, or infection.

    What happens after treatment for the condition?

    Sometimes the narrowing returns. In that case, dilation may have to be repeated. If dilation does not work, surgery may be needed.

    How is the condition monitored?

    Dilation is repeated if symptoms worsen. If symptoms cannot be controlled by dilation, surgery may be needed.

    Article type: xmedgeneral